This study aims to clarify how the stimulation of acupuncture points is achieved by needles with different surface texture during acupuncture; it also seeks to lessen injury at the insertion site and increase the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture, by simulating the mechanical effects of various needle surface patterns on Zusanli (ST36) without changing the radius of acupuncture needles.

A pattern perpendicular to the movement direction during the acupuncture manipulation creates more stimulation. These results have significance for future needle design.

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J Integr Med. 2023 Mar 23;S2095-4964(23)00025-0. doi: 10.1016/j.joim.2023.03.005

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